Skin Serum Milks: sold as bulk formulations, are ready-to-fill skin fluids. These formulations are custom manufactured for brands who wish to offer intensive hydration and anti-aging treatments with high absorption properties. Skin Serum Milks can be formulated with natural plant oils, silicones and esters, as well as oil soluble and water soluble active ingredients.
Unique Manufacturing Process and Chemistry
Skin Serum Milks are thin oil-in-water dispersions which are prepared under ultra-sonic cavitation with a natural plant-derived lipid called Phosphatidylglycerol. The resulting oil droplets in the range of 10 - 400nm are significantly below the size of standard oil-in-water skin care emulsions. These tiny droplets contain a very high surface area which increases interactions with skin and improves topical delivery of anti-aging ingredients.
mean particle size 280 nm
Skin Serum Milks Prepared with Phosphatidylglycerol
With age and environmentally-induced inflammatory responses, skin cells can lose their regenerative balance and may not differentiate at a healthy rate. This can result in the loss of youthful looking skin and can even lead to other more severe skin conditions such as psoriasis. In the differentiation process, human stem cells found in the body form epidermal stem cells and progenitor cells in the lower part of the stratum basale. These cells proliferate a few times before moving up through the epidermis as they differentiate to keratinocyte cells. Eventually these cells lose their nucleus and become corneocytes, which form the outer protective barrier of the skin. In humans, it is estimated that keratinocytes turnover from stem cells to desquamation every 40-56 days. Many factors including photo-induced damage can disrupt this process of cell renewal. Normalizing this differentiation process can hold the answer to skin rejuvination and anti-aging.
Phophatidylglycerol (PG) is a unique lipid which occurs in the human body. It has been discovered that PG regulates specific human genes and pathways which act on keratinocyte skin cell differentiation, proliferation, inflammation and cellular hydration. PG also activates many cell regenerative processes and has been shown to normalize key keratinocyte skin cell growth and development, bringing skin to a proper level of homeostasis.
In our Skin Serum Milks, Phosphatidylglycerol acts as both a gentle non-disruptive oil structuring agent and a bio-active signaling compound which regulates the following regenerative human genes:
PCR Modulation of wnt pathway genes with Phosphatidylglycerol, as compared to control (without Phosphatidylglycerol)
Position on Array
Fold Regulation vs. Control
Activator of wnt canonical signaling through inhibition of GSK-3.
Increased in differentiated tissues (Choi et al., 2008). Accordingly, Frizzled 2 increases the intracellular Ca²⁺ level, consistently with the role of this ion in keratinocyte differentation (Niu et al., 2012).
Frizzled 8 decreases with age in progenitor cells. Its upregulation may "rejuvenate" these cells, making them more capabale of tissues regeneration (Brunt et al., 2012).
Jun is a target of wnt canonical pathway. Jun is an early differentiation marker (Blatti & Scott, 1992; Murray et al., 2013) and an effector of TGF-beta, a key effector in skin homeostasis.
Kremen1 (Krm1) is a negative regulator of the canonical wnt signaling pathway.
SFRP1 induces differentiation, inhibits proliferation of epithelial cells and negatively regulates wnt pathway.
Induced by TGF-beta. Activator of wnt/β-catenin signaling. WNT10A, in addition to the formation of teeth and hair follicles, is of importance for the formation of nails, regeneration of the epidermis, papillae of the tongue and sweat gland function. Loss of function results in dry skin, abnormal hair patterns and nail malformations (Nawaz et al., 2009).
Wnt7b plays an important role in stem cell homeostasis and in the tissue repair and regeneration (Lin et al., 2010; Kandyba et al., 2013).
Aquaporin Water-Glycerol Channel
Cellular Hydration with Phosphatidylglycerol containing Skin Serum Milks
Aquaporins selectively conduct water molecules in and out of cells, while preventing the passage of ions and other solutes. Also known as water channels, aquaporins are integral membrane pore proteins. Phosphatidylglycerol has been discovered to act as a biological signaling compound expressing Aquaporin 3 (APQ3). APQ3 regulates water reabsorption and glycerol permeability. These cellular mechanisms may be essential for maintaining resilient well hydrated skin.
Down-regulating Infammatory COX-2 with Phosphatidylglycerol containing Skin Serum Milks
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, is an enzyme that is responsible for formation of biological inflammatory mediators. While it maintains important biological functions, it can also cause significant tissue damage. In skin, COX-2 is expressed after UV exposure and has been linked with cancer. Phosphatidylglycerol has been found to down-regulate the expression of COX-2 enzyme.